Create an analytical framework to facilitate your analysis of historical leadership models
Resource: Parts I, II and III of the Wren (1995) text, SAS Central: Critical Thinking, AES Presentation
Create an analytical framework to facilitate your analysis of historical leadership models in the Week 3 assignment. For this week, you will simply need to create and complete the visual framework.
To create the framework, choose three of the models described in chapters 10 -17 of Wren Part III (assume each chapter describes a different leadership model). Then, choose three to five generic processes of leadership. One component or process must be the leader/follower exchange – how the leader and followers interact, or their relationship to each other. Choose two to four other processes leaders engage in. To identify processes, you might think about these sentences: “How does ________ happen in this model?” or “What does _______ look like in this model?” (Note: you are not simply asking whether or not the process is part of the model. So, not a yes/no question.)
The analytic framework is a visual representation of components of the models that will allow you to analyze the similarities, differences, gaps, etc. in Week 3. A matrix framework is easy to construct and use – see the Assignment Materials for a visual of the framework you can use.
Create a 6- to 10-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that includes a brief description of each model/theory and your analytical framework. Use these design criteria:
- Four to six bullet points per slide,
- Six to eight words per bullet – not full sentences,
- Each bullet point containing a fact or assertion should also have a citation to literature,
- Speaker notes in full sentences contain an expanded version of bullets on slides and also have citations as necessary, and
- Reference slide with a minimum of four sources (one can be Wren).
Format your citations and references consistent with APA guidelines.
1. SAS Central: Argument Construction: Critical Thinking
What Is Critical Thinking?
In the SAS doctoral program, you will have the opportunity to develop and extend your critical thinking skills. You will be encouraged to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize as an integral aspect of your thinking. These thinking operations might be applied to analyzing the literature, developing questions, solving a problem, creating a new model, or deciding upon a course of action.
Richard Paul and Linda Elder (2009), two long-standing and respected scholars of critical thinking, crafted the following definition: Critical thinking is the act of analyzing and evaluating thinking with a view to improving it (p. 4).
Paul and Elder (2009) also suggest that critical thinking entails a commitment to overcoming our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.
Other recent views of critical thinking critique the overemphasis on the cognitive dimension of critical thinking (sometimes referred to as the Cartesian duality of “I think, therefore I am”). Researchers such as Klein (1999) remind us of the role of intuition; neuroscientists using new scanning techniques help us understand the role of emotions and the complex interactions of our mind and body.
In SAS we endeavor to introduce you to the latest models of how we can develop higher-order thinking and adult development. There are many ways of knowing that can lead to synthesis. For example, we will be developing your capacity for creating new ideas and original insights by encouraging you to use synthesis or discovery-based thinking.
Traditional views of critical thinking
Contemporary views of critical thinking
Emphasis on cognition alone – I think; therefore I amInteraction of cognition, emotion, spirit and the body especially use of visual representations, and other non sentential forms of reasoning (Thagard & Shelley, 1997).Reification of rationality, objectivityAcknowledging the role of intuition and collaboration in design/abductive thinking (Dunne & Martin, 2006); disciplined imagination or reflexivity (Weick, 1989; Weick, 1999).Emphasis on validation, universal competenciesDiscovery practices as used by theoreticians (Jaccard & Jacoby, 2009). Remaining sensitive to uncertainty, doubt, surprise (Locke, Golden-Biddle, & Feldman, 2008) to stimulate original thinking.Emphasis on deductive logic Acceptance and inclusion of inductive & abductive logic.
Critical analysis is one of the first steps in learning to read and write in a scholarly manner. Critical analysis involves the following:
- Taking apart, locating and examining the components, comparing and contrasting, investigating, sequencing, differentiating, distinguishing, gathering, and assessing diverse and sometimes contradictory information.
- Finding the evidence to support assertions.
- Questioning assumptions and recording problems.
- Illustrating claims with concrete examples and descriptions of the social context in which they occurred.
Critical evaluation is the next step in learning to read and write in a scholarly manner. Critical evaluation involves applying a specific lens or criteria to reach reasoned judgments and articulate clear claims based on credible evidence. Critical evaluation is shaped by the topic, the audience, and the lens. For example, in reading research, one can evaluate the methodology, the approach, assumptions, and other core elements of the research design.
Critically evaluation involves the following:
- Evaluating all inferences.
- Evaluating diverse, and sometimes contradictory, perspectives, theories, and assumptions.
- Formulating well-reasoned conclusions and solutions.
- Testing conclusions against relevant criteria, assumptions, and standards.
- Critical synthesis uses metacognition to place the focus of prior analytical and evaluative work into a coherent whole that incorporates one’s original insights and contributions. Critical synthesis involves creating vital research questions and problems for the future.
- Recognizing and/ or co-constructing original patterns.
- Applying insights across boundaries from multiple disciplines (Boyer, 1992, p. 89).
- Thinking open-mindedly within alternative systems of thoughts, and recognizing and assessing assumptions.
- Taking the 100,000-foot view to see the whole from a new perspective to create new questions and perspectives.
- Using discovery practices, such as disciplined imagination, intuition, informed voice, and embodiment, to develop innovative ideas, designs, theories, or solutions.
- Engaging in reflexive inquiry to generate consciousness raising (Freire, 2000, p. 87).
Note. There may be some overlap between critical analysis, critical evaluation,and critical synthesis. Critical thinking does not necessarily happen in a linear fashion; one may develop original insights and ideas during critical analysis and critical evaluation. However, this model is designed to help students see the value in continuing to build upon their work, question their assertions, and elevate their critical thinking.
Example of Emerging Critical Thinking
The writing example below is taken from a former students’ literature review. This example demonstrates emerging critical thinking and the type of critical thinking faculty members in the School of Advanced Studies expect to see in doctoral student work.
In the example, the paraphrased information from the literature is in black text. The student’s original thinking is in italicized blue text. Below the example is commentary explaining how the student synthesized the literature.
“Academic advisors are representatives of the Student Affairs department. Academic advisors can build long-term satisfactory relationships to help alleviate stress in college students (Kim & Feldman, 2011). As mentioned by Ludwig-Hardman and Dunlap (2005) and Sparkman et al. (2012), social and personal integration among college students help to decrease attrition and increase graduation rates.” Academic advisors help to provide students with personalized support. Students feel more connected and ultimately more satisfied with their college experience through the relationships developed with their academic advisors.
“Academic advisors assist students with scheduling, transfer courses, early registration, applying for scholarships, and researching internships (Kim & Feldman, 2011). According to the research results of Kim and Feldman (2011), students felt more connected to their college when their academic advisors provided spontaneous communication, such as phone calls or e-mails, and offered timely responses to address students’ needs.” Academic advisors have the potential to provide support services students, increase retention, and eliminate feelings of isolation.
In an effort to understand the role that academic advisors play in an online student’s experience, it is essential to understand the perceived advisor-student relationship of online students, the topics that are discussed, and the preferred interactions between online students and their academic advisors.
Commentary on Example
In the first paragraph, the author opens with three statements about academic advisors. The first sentence lacks a citation. This implies that the first sentence is one of general knowledge. The next two sentences are assertions supported by citations.
The two italicized sentences, in blue, represent synthesis because the author has combined the two literature sources together and created a new idea or insight. The plausibility of the inference based on the assumptions as supported by literature is the basis for faculty evaluations of these two sentences where a new insight is presented.
Having made these two points, the author returns to the literature. The literature provides examples of how academic advisors can support students. The next italicized sentence represents an added insight generated by the author who has logically extending the cited sentences above. The author drives home his or her point in this sentence.
Finally, the author develops a proposition in the final italicized sentence based on the literature and the new insights garnered from synthesizing the literature.