Unit VIII Research Paper

Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy and paste. Please make sure that you follow all the professor instructions because it can affect the grade. Make sure you watch out for spelling or grammar.

Book Reference:  Gomez-Mejia, L. R., Balkin, D. B., & Cardy, R. L. (2016). Managing human resources (8th ed.) [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9780133953718 



In Unit VII, you conducted research and analyzed the appraisal and management of employee performance. You also researched information about training and development in the workforce.

Reflect on the research you conducted, and write a research paper that addresses the items below.

  • Explain how one can address the five challenges to effective performance measurement.
  • Describe how the performance management process effectively utilizes the following elements:
    • the appraisal interview,
    • performance improvement,
    • identification of causes of performance problems,
    • development of an action plan and empowerment of employees, and
    • communications at performance evaluations.
  • Explain how to address the four challenges to effective training.
  • Discuss how the training process can best be managed utilizing the following elements:
    • the needs assessment phase,
    • the clarification of the objectives of the training,
    • the training and conduct phase,
    • the evaluation phase, and
    • legal issues and training.

Your research paper must be at least three pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. Your research paper must include at least four peer-reviewed sources.

Refer to the resources you located for your annotated bibliography in Unit VII. Be sure to use proper APA style for your research paper.


The following resource(s) may help you with this assignment.


Unit VIII Introduction

Key elements in keeping the workforce effective and the business competitive involve planning and providing for appropriate workforce training. As businesses seem to change more quickly than ever, it is important to keep employees trained in the latest procedures, processes, and technologies. There are key decisions to be made strategically in regard to employee training. First, establish whether the training is something that only takes place in a classroom setting, on the job, or a combination of both. Second, consider whether training will be instructor-led or self-paced. Third, decide on delivery platforms, such as in a classroom, with an on-the-job mentor, or the option of online availability. Fourth, consider the breadth of training and how far-reaching it can go in the organization. This is especially important for any global operations. Fifth, appropriately motivate employees to learn in such training environments. Consistently demonstrating that the training is related to their current job or even future job is key. The term training is often confused with the term development. These are not the same. Training focuses on helping employees to learn specific skills or to improve current skills. Development focuses on helping employees obtain new abilities that the company will need going forward. Therefore, training has a current focus while development has a forward-looking emphasis. At times, when used to correct a deficiency in skill, training can have a negative connotation. Therefore, organizations may purposefully portray training as something more akin to development. Removing any negative stigma or perception can improve employee motivation. With the forward-looking focus of development, training is often combined into a development category to help with perception and employee motivation. Consideration should be given to some of the challenges of the training process. First, strategic human resource management must consider whether training is going to solve the problem(s) at hand. If there is a performance deficit, one must examine the cause(s). If there is a production performance problem and an UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE From Appraising and Managing the Workforce to the Training of That Workforce, Part II DBA 7553, Human Resource Management 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title initial review shows issues with substandard quality materials in the process, then training would not solve that. Second, human resource management must work with management to establish clear, realistic, and verifiable goals, as well as provide everyone with a realistic timeframe for the completion of such training. Third, the cost of training must be examined to determine if this would be a good investment. Human resource management must understand the goals for the training and set up cost estimates for how this training is to be delivered. In some cases, an online learning component may be best as it delivers consistent content across a wide variety of groups. However, it would be up to human resources to ensure that the investment costs would provide the return needed on improved performance. Fourth, designing training that will work is important, and human resources must work closely with management to understand the training needs and desired outcomes. Then management must be able to connect this to the organizational goals. Selecting the appropriate delivery methods based on the groups to be trained is another key function. With regard to managing the training process, there are three phases to consider. In the first phase, there is an assessment of needs that must be performed. The second phase involves the development of the training and the establishment of the manner in which it will be conducted. In the third phase, there is an evaluation method that must be developed to ascertain the effectiveness of the training provided. It is important that each of these phases is well planned in order for the full training process to be effective and efficient. In the first phase, the needs assessment phase, human resource must work with management to determine if training is even necessary. The problem(s) at hand must be fully explored to determine the foundation for the existence of the issue. This will provide a clear indicator of whether training is necessary or if another focal point is causing the issue. Issues, such as the organizational culture, the business climate, and organizational and departmental overall goals, can be examined. In addition, task analysis and person analysis are considered. Task analysis involves an in-depth examination of the job(s) at hand. Specific duties and tasks are identified, and detailed knowledge, skills, and abilities are explored. Person analysis involves looking at how well employees are conducting their specific duties. Training opportunities can be identified when an employee is not meeting performance expectations in specific areas. Additionally, when jobs are expanded because of a new focus based on something, such as a new competitive focus, training is also provided at such points. In the second phase, the objectives for any training are then developed, based on the results of the assessment phase. These objectives must be clear in order to be effective and should be linked to the knowledge, skills, and abilities identified in a task analysis during the assessment phase. Appropriately identifying such specific competencies is key to designing the correct objectives for the subject training. The focus should be on recognizing behavioral components for the training objectives. These components can then provide a clear focus for moving on, guiding the training, and developing the evaluation methods. The training and conduct phase is when location, presentation, and training options are reviewed and established. Reviewing location options would refer to whether training can be provided on the job or off the job, or even a combination of both. On-the-job training (OJT) is quite common. This is where a trainee would work under the guidance of a more senior and experienced trainer. This type of training provides for a handson experience that can produce viable competencies in an expeditious manner. Additionally, this type of training allows the trainee to be exposed to the social atmosphere in the workplace more effectively. There are different types of on-the-job training, such as job rotation, apprenticeships, and internships. On-the-job training can have some drawbacks, such as lost productivity or business, when an inexperienced trainee makes a costly mistake. Therefore, it is important for human resource management to carefully gauge this potential when planning. Off-the-job training can be a good alternative to on-the-job training at times because it can involve more formal course settings as well as the use of simulations and even role-playing exercises. (Iqoncept, n.d.) DBA 7553, Human Resource Management 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title In considering presentation options, some of the more common ones utilized are slide decks, videos, simulation, virtual reality, role-playing, classroom instruction, and online instruction. The use of slide decks or videos can be done in a specialized media room where employees either can review these at specific times or at various times that can be worked into their individual schedules. The use of simulations can also be effective. These will replicate the subject situations when training is needed so that complex information can be shared and practiced. Additionally, this type of training option is useful when the training involves dangerous issues, such as practice simulations for law enforcement, the military, or even pilots. Another issue to consider is cost. Providing useful and in-depth simulations can be less costly at times than providing real-world situations. Virtual reality is a growing area in training options and provides for an immersion into the subject work environment where the trainee can interact with people, issues, and items in real time. This can provide trainees an opportunity to more fully practice the subject at hand, particularly when there is the threat of danger or damage. Virtual reality provides a safer environment in which to train. Roleplaying and classroom instruction can sometimes be viewed as the more boring training option; however, incorporating other elements can enhance this training. For instance, the role-playing option lends itself very well to blending with the classroom-instruction option. Working out realistic training situations in this manner can be useful for those doing the role-playing as well as those observing it. Additionally, elements such as case study discussions can be a great way to provide engaging substance in classroom training. Finally, with online instruction, the elements discussed for classroom training can be taken online and dispersed to a wide range of employees. This is a great option for companies with employees who are geographically dispersed. These online instructions can be done in real time, with classes meeting via video conferencing or specialized online learning platforms. There are various types of training to consider. Skill training is where specific skills are identified and then the training will speak directly to those skill sets. Cross-functional training is where employees are trained in operations in various other work areas, other than their own. This can provide for more flexibility in the workforce. Team training is where groups can be trained in content tasks that focus on problem solving for specific team goals or in-group processes that focus on facilitating more effective teamwork. In the evaluation phase, human resource will want to measure the effectiveness of the training that was provided. This will help to know what is working well with the training that has been designed, and it will help to identify any areas that may need to be modified or strengthened in the program. Reference Iqoncept. (n.d.). Hire train motivate reward inspire retain thought clouds keep em (ID 50967685) [Image]. Retrieved from www.dreamstime.com